Monday, August 17, 2009

Double Decline Method of Depreciation

The Double Declining Balance Depreciation Method is more or less a method similar to Straight Line Method but with a difference. For finding it, we first need to calculate depreciation by using Straight Line Method. We shall then figure out the total % of the asset that is depreciated in the first year and double it. That same % is multiplied by the remaining balance to be depreciated each subsequent year. The value will be lower than the Straight Line charge at some point, at which the double declining method will be scrapped and the Straight Line used for the remainder of the asset’s life.

An illustration will clarify the concept:

Suppose Tara Ltd purchased a Machinery for Rs 10,000 with a Residual value of Rs 1,000 and an Effective Life of 5 Years. We first proceed to calculate the Straight Line Depreciation Rate, which will be=100% / 5 years=20%. We need to double this rate and hence get 40% as the Double Decline Rate.For the First Year, Depreciation on the Machinery will be=40/100 x10000=4000.Therefore, Depreciated Value at the beginning of the Second Year will be= 10,000-4,000=6000.For the Second Year, Depreciation on the Machinery will be=40/100 x 6000=2400.Therefore, Depreciated Value at the beginning of the Third Year will be =6000-2400=3600.For the Third Year, Depreciation on the Machinery will be=40/100 x 3600=1440. Therefore, Depreciated Value at the beginning of the Fourth Year will be=3600-1440-=2160.For the Fourth Year, Depreciation on the Machinery will be=40/100x2160=864.Depreciated Value at the beginning of the Fifth or Last Year will be=2160-864=1296.For the Fifth/Last Year Depreciation will be the difference between the Depreciated Value and the Residual Value. Therefore, Depreciation will be=1296-1000=296.Thus the Accumulated Depreciation over the 5 years will =4000+2400+ 1440+864+296= Rs 9000.This figure plus the Residual Value of Rs 1,000 will give us the Original Value of the Machinery of Tara Ltd i.e.9000+1000=10000.The peculiar feature of Double Decline Method is that in determining the depreciation per annum, the Residual Value is not considered. Another striking feature is that the book value of the depreciated asset is never allowed to go down below the Residual Value.

Contributed By:
Prof. Jayanta Mitra
(Globsyn Business School)

Tuesday, August 11, 2009

Private Equity Funds - Shift from Real estate to Education and Health ?

Fund raising by real estate sector focussed private equity funds have declined 61 per cent to USD 17 billion till May this year, as investors turned cautious.

According to a report by global research firm Preqin, PE investments till May this year has seen private equity real estate funds raise USD 17 billion, a reduction of 61 per cent on the same period in 2008. PE fund raising till May 2008 stood at USD 44 billion. The report said that with the slump in demand in the realty space, PE investors are being cautious and are making fewer commitments.

Although fund raising across the entire private equity real estate industry has declined sharply, the fall is particularly noticeable for funds targeting Asia. Fund raising by the Asia focussed funds declined 83 per cent over the year-ago period to USD 1.36 billion till May this year. The funds had raised USD 11 billion till May 2008.

However, even in slowdown, sectors like education and healthcare are perceived as recession proof. A report released by Venture Intelligence, a firm that tracks VC & PE activity, has found that over 80% of fund managers were game for investing in education companies with good track record. In the current uncertain economic environment, the attractive and predictable rates of return of the education industry, is serving as a magnet for PE investors.

India has a young population and there is huge emphasis on education. Opportunities exists right from pre-school level training to university and vocational training courses Matrix which had in 2008 invested in Tree House education a pre-school institute has now reported to have put in Rs 1oo Crore in FIITJEE, a preparatory training institute for professional courses. Educom Solutions one of the high flier of the stock market is currently trading around Rs 4000 per share. A few PE firms have reportedly bought stake in the Co.

Already, investments valued at $300 million has been made in this sector. Also, with a potential market size of $40 billion for private educational institutions, the sector appears to be lucrative for investors.

Recently, Religare Enterprises signed a joint venture agreement with Milestone Capital for managing a Rs 600 crore healthcare and education fund. Investment banker Hemendra Kothari recently sold his 10% remaining stake in DSP Merrill Lynch and plans to enter the healthcare and education sectors.

Despite the overall optimism, investors have their set of concerns, the topmost being the regulatory uncertainty surrounding "for profit" ventures in the K-12 (kindergarten to higher secondary) and higher education segments and the lack of scalability of ventures in "non formal" segments. Over half of the fund managers surveyed by Venture Intelligence felt that regulatory hurdles are a significant deterrent to the free flow of investments into the education.

Contributed By:
Prof. J. N. Mukhopadhyay
(Globsyn Business School)

Source: Economic Times & Business India